Stantinko botnet adds cryptomining to its pool of criminal activities

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ESET researchers have discovered that the criminals behind the Stantinko botnet are distributing a cryptomining module to the computers they control

The operators of the Stantinko botnet have expanded their toolset with a new means of profiting from the computers under their control. The roughly half-million-strong botnet – known to have been active since at least 2012 and mainly targeting users in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Kazakhstan – now distributes a cryptomining module. Mining Monero, a cryptocurrency whose exchange rate oscillates in 2019 between US$50 and US$110, has been the botnet’s monetizing functionality since at least August 2018. Before that, the botnet performed click fraud, ad injection, social network fraud and password stealing attacks.

In this article, we describe Stantinko’s cryptomining module and provide an analysis of its functionality.

This module’s most notable feature is the way it is obfuscated to thwart analysis and avoid detection. Due to the use of source level obfuscations with a grain of randomness and the fact that Stantinko’s operators compile this module for each new victim, each sample of the module is unique.

We will describe the module’s obfuscation techniques and offer, in a separate article for fellow malware analysts, a possible approach to deal with some of them.

Since Stantinko is constantly developing new and improving its existing custom obfuscators and modules, which are heavily obfuscated, it would be backbreaking to track each minor improvement and change that it introduces. Therefore, we decided to mention and describe only what we believe are significant adjustments in comparison with earlier samples relative to the state in which the module is to be described. After all, we intend just to describe the module as it currently is in this article.

Modified open-source cryptominer

Stantinko’s cryptomining module, which exhausts most of the resources of the compromised machine by mining a cryptocurrency, is a highly modified version of the xmr-stak open-source cryptominer. All unnecessary strings and even whole functionalities were removed in attempts to evade detection. The remaining strings and functions are heavily obfuscated. ESET security products detect this malware as Win{32,64}/CoinMiner.Stantinko.

Use of mining proxies

CoinMiner.Stantinko doesn’t communicate with its mining pool directly, but via proxies whose IP addresses are acquired from the description text of YouTube videos. A similar technique to hide data in descriptions of YouTube videos is used by the banking malware Casbaneiro. Casbaneiro uses much more legitimate-looking channels and descriptions, but for much the same purpose: storing encrypted C&Cs.

The description of such a video consists of a string comprised of mining proxy IP addresses in hexadecimal format. For example, the YouTube video seen in Figure 1 has the description “03101f1712dec626“, which corresponds to two IP addresses in hexadecimal format – 03101f17 corresponds to 3.16.31[.]23 in decimal dotted-quad format, and 12dec626 is 18.222.198[.]38. As of the time of writing, the format has been slightly adjusted. The IP addresses are currently enclosed in “!!!!”, which simplifies the very process of parsing and prevents possible changes of the YouTube video HTML structure turning the parser dysfunctional.

Figure 1. Example YouTube video whose description provides an IP address for the module’s communication with the mining pool

In earlier versions, the YouTube URL was hardcoded in CoinMiner.Stantinko binary. Currently the module receives a video identifier as a command line parameter instead. This parameter is then used to construct the YouTube URL, in the form The cryptomining module is executed by either Stantinko’s BEDS component, or by rundll32.exe via a batch file that we have not captured, with the module loaded from a local file system location of the form %TEMP%%RANDOM%%RANDOM_GUID%.dll.

We informed YouTube of this abuse; all the channels containing these videos were taken down.

Cryptomining capabilities

We have divided the cryptomining module into four logical parts, which represent distinct sets of capabilities. The main part performs the actual cryptomining; the other parts of the module are responsible for additional functions:

suspending other (i.e. competing) cryptomining applications detecting security software suspending the cryptomining function if the PC is on battery power or when a task manager is detected, to prevent being revealed by the user Cryptomining

At the very core of the cryptomining function lies the process of hashing, and communication with the proxy. The method of obtaining the list of mining proxies is described above; CoinMiner.Stantinko sets the communication with the first mining proxy it finds alive.

Its communication takes place over TCP and is encrypted by RC4 with a key consisting of the first 26 characters of the number pi (including the decimal separator, hardcoded in the string “3,141592653589793238462643“) and then base64 encoded; the same key is used in all samples we have seen.

The code of the hashing algorithm is downloaded from the mining proxy at the beginning of the communication and loaded into memory – either directly or, in earlier versions, from the library libcr64.dll that is first dropped onto the disk.

Downloading the hashing code with each execution enables the Stantinko group to change this code on the fly. This change makes it possible, for example, to adapt to adjustments of algorithms in existing currencies and to switch to mining other cryptocurrencies in order, perhaps, to mine the most profitable cryptocurrency at the moment of execution. The main benefit of downloading the core part of the module from a remote server and loading it directly into memory is that this part of the code is never stored on disk. This additional adjustment, which is not present in earlier version, is aimed at complicating detection because patterns in these algorithms are trivial for security products to detect.

All instances of Stantinko’s cryptomining module we’ve analyzed mine Monero. We deduced this from the jobs provided by the mining proxy and the hashing algorithm. For example, Figure 2 is a job sent by one of the proxies.


Figure 2. Example mining job received from a mining pool proxy

We analyzed the hashing algorithm used and found that it was CryptoNight R. Since there are multiple cryptocurrencies that use this algorithm, its